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Supermarkets and discounters advertise with fresh vegetables. Much is imported from abroad. Very few consumers know exactly where it comes from and what is meant by organic vegetables abroad. Sellers often cannot say with certainty whether it has been chemically treated. This can be remedied with your own vegetable patch. How this is created is explained in the detailed instructions.


  • the healthiest vegetables come from your own garden
  • better taste if you harvest fully ripe vegetables yourself
  • anything that tastes good can be planted
  • Mixed cultures turn vegetable beds into eye-catchers
  • Vegetable bed also for the balcony
  • also brings nature into city gardens
  • planted and cultivated correctly, high yields are guaranteed

Fresh, untreated vegetables are the basis of a healthy life. But for many, buying directly from the farm is too expensive and the origin of numerous types of vegetables in the supermarkets is uncertain. If you want to be on the safe side, you should create your own vegetable patch.

You don't need a lot of space in the garden for this, just a good plan and the right know-how. With these instructions, you can easily get to your vegetable patch, which promises you the best yields in just a few simple steps if you pay attention to the most important details.

Plan Guide

What used to be considered a necessity for poorer people is now more and more popular: your own vegetable patch for the sake of health. In your mind, you probably associate a lot of work, weeds and poor harvests due to pests or unsuitable weather conditions with a vegetable patch.

Today, however, we are much more knowledgeable about the perfect vegetable patch. When properly planted, there is very little work to be done, and preventative measures can protect against almost anything that would ruin a crop. All you need is optimal planning, a little space and the perfect location.


Whether in the garden or in the planter on the balcony, the right location is one of the most important criteria for a thriving vegetable plant. Basically, the darker a location is chosen, the lower the yields will be. Therefore, a bright, sunny spot with between four and five hours of daily sunlight is always the best location choice for most vegetables.

Only a few types of vegetables like a semi-shady place. Exact information is usually noted on the package of the seed. In the garden, care should also be taken to ensure that the vegetable bed is not placed too close to large or fast-growing trees with flat or broad roots, as the roots could spread under the vegetable bed and thus deprive the vegetable plants of important nutrients. The so-called taproots, on the other hand, do not pose a problem in the immediate vicinity of a vegetable patch.

When choosing a location, it should also be considered that a vegetable patch should not be planted in the immediate vicinity of an orchard. The vegetables would grow less well here, since fruit demands a particularly large number of nutrients from the soil during the growth phase and there is a risk that the vegetables will no longer be adequately supplied.

It is also advisable not to plant the bed near wet areas or where there is an increased risk of overwatering. These include, for example, close to large water filter systems or large rainwater catchment basins that leak unnoticed and can soak the ground so that waterlogging occurs. If this happens, root rot will spread to most vegetables and completely ruin your harvest.

soil condition

For the best harvest yields, you should pay particular attention to the soil conditions, because this is where most of the supply takes place. The floor should meet the following criteria.

  • loose, humus-rich soil
  • nutritious
  • slightly sandy
  • water permeable
  • average pH for vegetables: 6.5
  • Exception leeks and leeks: pH between 7.0 and 8.0


If you want to plant your vegetable bed on the balcony in an appropriate bed box, you should use a high-quality substrate. This should be permeable, but at the same time also have water-storing properties. A substrate with perlite ensures a loose soil structure, while clay in the substrate absorbs water and slowly releases it again.

A substrate containing peat should be avoided. This tends to clump together and quickly makes the soil impermeable to water. Mold formation and, in the worst case, fungal infestation of the vegetable plants are the result.

planting times

The correct planting time depends on the type of vegetable. In general, vegetables can be grown throughout the summer season, especially when they have been harvested, they are planted or sown again. The following planting plan gives a rough overview of the possible start of planting.


From the middle of the month, when the ground frosts subside, it's time to sow broad beans. These develop more magnificently when the earth is not yet warmed by the sun. Early sowing also makes them less conspicuous for a bean aphid infestation.

  • broad beans


  • chard
  • carrots
  • radish
  • beets
  • Shell and wrinkled peas
  • spinach
  • salsify
  • snow peas
  • scallions and spring onions
  • Field, frisee, cut and Batavia lettuce
  • butter and red cabbage
  • stick butter


If the sun continues to warm up, all types of vegetables that are not sensitive to late frost can be planted or sown. These include leeks, radishes, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, beetroot, white cabbage, savoy cabbage and onions as well as lettuce.

  • leek
  • radish
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Kohlrabi
  • Beetroot
  • white cabbage
  • savoy
  • onions
  • lettuce


After the ice saints, the time for frost-sensitive vegetables has also come.

  • artichokes
  • Chicory
  • pole beans
  • savoy
  • zucchini
  • sweetcorn
  • soybeans


From June onwards, the number of types of vegetables that can be sown or planted decreases, as heat-loving varieties only have a short time to fully ripen. Planting time is now for cauliflower, broccoli, cucumber, fennel, radicchio and chicory salad.

  • cauliflower
  • broccoli
  • cucumbers
  • fennel
  • radicchio
  • chicory salad


From July, only later should fennel and sugar loaf be sown. New seeding for the following types of vegetables is possible until July at the latest.

  • fennel
  • sugarloaf
  • bush beans
  • iceberg lettuce
  • Kale and Brussels sprouts
  • Kohlrabi and radishes
  • lettuce and lettuce
  • carrots and turnips
  • radish
  • Beetroot
  • spinach


This month is reserved only for rapidly developing vegetables, such as endives.

  • endive


Only a few rapid developers manage to mature when planted in September. But from September you can already make provisions for next year, for example with spring onions, lettuce, chard, spinach and onion sets.

  • spring onions
  • lettuce
  • chard
  • spinach
  • onion sets


Now the vegetable season is officially over with the aim of a short-term harvest.

The bed plan

Once an optimal location has been found, a bed plan is drawn up. The bed size plays a particularly important role here. This should be chosen so that you can easily reach the middle of the bed with your hands from the edge or from two opposite sides. To determine the width, stand at a point, crouch, and reach out with one hand as far as you can but are comfortable.

Put a mark where the hand touches the ground. Now measure the distance between your front toes and the marking. Plan lateral edge inspections, double the measurement result and get the maximum width that your bed should have. As a rule, this width is between 1.00 meters and 1.20 meters.

The route plan

In order not to trample on any fresh seed when planting, harvesting or pulling weeds, a walkable path should be created on or around the vegetable patch. If the width is arm's length, one path is sufficient; if the width is twice as wide, one path must be created on two opposite sides.

A large bed should be divided into numerous small vegetable beds at arm's length, and the paths laid out to serve as divisions. In theory, the path does not necessarily have to be paved. However, a hard surface offers better pushing of wheelbarrows and can also serve as a border at the same time if it is placed higher than the bed surface.

If a path is at ground level with the vegetable patch or even lower, it is advisable to make a bed edging so that no soil spreads on the path and shallow roots can be exposed. The paths should have a width of between 60 centimeters and 80 centimeters.

If there are several vegetable bed divisions, it is advisable to always stake out a bed area first and then mark the path. This is how you proceed with each partial bed creation, so that at the end you have enough space between the individual areas to be able to reach every centimeter in the individual sections of the vegetable beds via the paths.

The planting plan

You should pay particular attention to planting or sowing and the planting location in the bed. If you proceed carelessly, you will usually be disappointed with the growth and maturity results.

  • Classification into main, pre- and post-cultures

Two categories of vegetables

You should know in advance that all vegetables are classified into two categories:

  • in main cultures
  • pre- and post-cultures

Main, pre- and post-culture means a planting that provides different types of vegetables in a bed throughout the vegetable season. In this way, the space can be used optimally and a maximum harvest can be achieved.

Here it is advisable to start with the pre-culture in early spring and add main crops with longer growing times to a crop rotation in the same vegetable patch at different times or to combine them after the first harvest.

The pre-crops include spinach, lettuce and new potatoes, while the main crops include corn, cucumbers and carrots. If the pre-culture is completely harvested, the main culture that is still there is supplemented with the post-culture. Here, too, the secondary crop can be sown after the main crop has been harvested.

All types of vegetables that can also be planted in June or July and still reach maturity by the beginning of autumn, such as radishes or French beans, are suitable for subsequent cultivation. You can usually find precise information about possible planting times and the estimated time until the first harvest of the respective vegetable species on the seed packaging and then create your planting plan.

Classification of types of vegetables

Classification into heavy, medium and weak consumers

In addition to the cultivation plan, you should also consider the nutritional and mineral requirements of each type of vegetable in your planting plan. A distinction is made here between heavy, medium and weak consumers. The basic rule here is never to place heavily consuming vegetables in the same bed repeatedly, as this would leach out the soil components too much and result in a reduced yield.

heavy feeder

  • Heavy feeders include, for example, cauliflower, kohlrabi, celery, winter leeks, peppers, new potatoes, sweet potatoes and tomatoes

medium eater

  • lettuce, carrots, beetroot, spinach and onions are considered medium consumers

weak feeder

  • Peas, horseradish and runner beans are examples of weak feeders

mixed culture

Many hobby vegetable growers use one type of vegetable per bed for the sake of order. This certainly makes it easier to keep track of things, but numerous field reports show that different types of vegetables grow better in one bed.

This is due to the fact that these are not in competition with each other and the nutrient and mineral content in the soil is better for all vegetable plants. The condition, however, is that the different species are selected according to their nutritional and mineral requirements. Here, for example, a combination of heavy and weak consumers would be advantageous, such as tomatoes and radishes or cauliflower and peas.

To prevent some pest infestations, you can also use a mixed culture for it. For example, the scent of carrots keeps onion flies at bay. Garlic has a protective effect on mite-prone vegetables such as peppers.

Vegetables in the bed

Growing vegetables in the bed box

Even without a garden, you don't have to do without your own vegetable patch. Special balcony bed boxes are available, which you can choose from in a wide variety of sizes according to the space available. Alternatively, you can also use conventional plant pots as a basis for your home-grown vegetables, in which, for example, a tomato bush looks very pretty and thrives.

Use a substrate as described in the "Substrate" section. If you use a plant pot or tub, drainage should be laid on the bottom to avoid waterlogging. To do this, pour a layer of gravel or quartz sand about two centimeters thick on the bottom of the pot. Pottery shards also serve the purpose of minimizing the risk of waterlogging.

Shallow roots such as lettuce, tomatoes and peas, for example, take up little soil and the depth of the bed box must be chosen accordingly. However, if you want to grow root vegetables on the balcony, you need a deep container that is twice as deep as the root vegetables grow long. You can usually find the estimated sizes of the individual types of vegetables in the product description on the seed packaging.

The same instructions apply to the planting as described in the "Planting plan" section.

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