- Rapid growth
- Nursing influences development
- Plant spacing and trellis
- development of the vines
- Delayed flowering
- frequently asked Questions
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Grapevines have been known as cultivated plants since ancient times. These climbing shrubs are very fast-growing. The thin and long tendrils must be fixed to climbing aids. For more information on how fast grapevines grow, see below.
In a nutshell
- Uncut and with climbing aids, heights of up to 10 meters can be reached
- Annual growth of the shoots between 100 and 200 cm
- Wine loves a sunny, warm place
- Weather influences development
- Growth begins in April after winter dormancy
Not only can vines live to be 100 years and older, but they also grow very quickly. The strong-growing climbing shrubs can reach a height of up to 10 meters without annual pruning. However, since sweet grapes are to be harvested in autumn, regular spring and summer pruning is inevitable, which affects the height. Annual growth of the shoots of between 100 and 200 cm can be expected for the wine. The development depends on various conditions.
First and foremost, the weather influences the development of vines. This can be accommodated with a suitable location. He should
- warm, full sun and
- sheltered from the wind
being. the vines hardly grow in a shady location and the vines quickly begin to wither. Ideal is:
- always in a southerly position
- preferably in front of a stone wall or house wall
- Stones store heat
- offer plants protection from the cold at night
In addition, the cultivation and development of wine is heavily dependent on the weather. He needs:
- at least 15 degrees daily average temperature during flowering
- at least 18 degrees during growing season
- 25 to 28 degrees during grape growth
- annual rainfall between 400 and 500 mm
Under such conditions, the wine can mature well.
Normally, the vines do not make any special demands on the soil. Care should be taken that he
- deep and loose
- permeable and slightly moist
- sandy-loamy and calcareous
is. Waterlogging is not tolerated. Moist, mineral soils are particularly suitable for growing. These warm up earlier and faster in spring.
Tip: Growing vines can be favored years in advance by preparing the soil well before planting in the fall. Fertilizers rich in potassium and phosphorus should be incorporated deep into the soil.
Nursing influences development
Of course, the vines also need appropriate care for good development and formation of the shoots and buds.
- weed-free soils
- chop occasionally, not too deep
- Only fertilize organically in the first three years
- suitable rotted compost, bark humus
- best time in spring
- Amount 2 to 3 liters per square meter
- From the 4th year of growth, application of mineral fertilizer
- first application in April: 100 g per plant
- second application June to July: 40 g per plant
- suitable potassium-rich fertilizer for soft fruit
- Water only for new plantings in spring and summer
- older specimens are self-sufficient through roots
- Winter protection in harsh areas
- to do this, pile up the base of the trunk with soil or compost
- Remove winter protection in March
- regular pruning
Plant spacing and trellis
For a good development, the vines need enough space to grow healthily. Furthermore, a climbing aid is necessary for education. If the plants have enough space on both sides, they can be trained on a trellis up to a width of six meters. In order for the vines to get enough light and air, the following should be taken into account:
- in wall or wall planting 3 to 4 m² per vine
- Distance between plants 2 to 4 m
development of the vines
Between November and early April, a grapevine is dormant. There is little sap in the shoots and trunk of the plant and the stored reserve substances prevent the plant from freezing. In mid-April, when soil temperatures rise above 10 degrees, the vines absorb water from the soil and the buds begin to swell. These contain the plants for grapes and leaves. Each bud consists of a main eye and two subsidiary eyes. If the main eye is damaged, two shoots can grow from one bud.
- Budding depends on the weather
- Usually starts at the end of April
- initially only one leaf unfolds
- Shoots growing daily
- three bills visible
- Appearance: non-fertilized bunches
- faster shoot growth from mid-May
- two leaves per shoot present
- daily shoot growth of between 10 and 20 cm from mid-June
- only grows in good weather
- cold temperatures stop development
- Beginning of ripening of individual berry approaches
- Flowering starts from within
Notice: The duration and timing of flowering can already provide information about the quality and quantity of the harvest. In warm and dry weather, early flowering can occur quickly. Then good yields and good quality are guaranteed.
Sometimes not all of the individual flowers bloom at the same time. This results in a different development of the berries.
- larger berries are fully fertilized
- smaller ones very often virgin fruit (very small and seedless)
- initially bunches pointing in all directions
- with increase in berry weight, bunches tending downwards
- also shoots continue to grow
- between August and September storage of sugar and aromas in berries
- after harvest only leaves remain
- from there storage of nutrients in the wood
- this completes the ripening of the shoots
Notice: The buds form and mature in the summer of the previous year.
frequently asked QuestionsWhich soil is favorable for the grapevine?
The soil should be loose and deep. The vines thrive best on sandy-loamy to mineral soils. They should also be somewhat chalky as well.What is the correct way to plant vines?
There are a number of things to consider when planting new vines, because further development depends on them. The best time is in April/May. The planting hole should be 50 cm deep and 30 cm wide. The annual shoots must be cut back to one eye. The plant is used at a slight angle in the direction of the climbing aid. The finishing point must be at least 3 cm above the ground. Regular watering is then necessary.Why does a grapevine need a climbing aid?
The vines belong to the liana family. For a culture in the garden or on the house wall you need a climbing aid. The shoots are tied to it. The training of the vine is possible by means of a climbing aid. In this way, a good, strong trunk structure can be achieved. The vine can spread and develop well with its shoots.